A partial list of papers from or associated with the Townsend Lab. Copies / PDFs of most papers below available on request.

Townsend AR and GP Asner. 2013. Multiple dimensions of resource limitation in tropical forests. PNAS, 10.1073/pnas.1301606110.

Ferrenberg, S., S. O’Neill, J. Knelman, B. Todd, S. Duggan, D. Bradley, T. Robinson, S.K. Schmidt, A.R. Townsend, M. Williams, C.C. Cleveland and D.R. Nemergut. 2013. Secondary succession of the soil microbial community following a forest wildfire. ISME Journal, doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.11

Reed, S. C., A. R. Townsend and C. C. Cleveland. 2013. Relationships between phosphorus, molybdenum, and free-living nitrogen fixation in tropical rain forests. Biogeochemistry (In press).

Townsend A.R. and S. Porder.  2012. Agricultural Legacies, Food Production and its Environmental Consequences.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1203766109

Townsend, AR, PM Vitousek, BZ Houlton. 2012. The climate benefits of better nitrogen and phosphorus management. Issues in Science and Technology, January Issue.

Leff, J.W., W.R. Wieder, P.G. Taylor, A.R. Townsend, D.R. Nemergut, A.S. Grandy, & C.C. Cleveland. 2012. Experimental litterfall manipulation drives large and rapid changes in soil carbon cycling in a wet tropical forest. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02749.x

Reed, S.C., A.R. Townsend, E.A. Davidson and C.C. Cleveland. 2012. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption and stoichiometry across multiple scales. New Phytologist 196: 173–180

Wieder, W.K., C.C. Cleveland, P.G. Taylor, D.R. Nemergut, E.Hinckley, L. Phillippot & A.R. Townsend. 2012. Both increases and decreases in organic matter inputs reduce nitrate production and loss in lowland tropical forest. Biogeochemistry DOI 10.1007/s10533-012-9793-1

Keller, A.B., S.C. Reed, A.R. Townsend and C.C. Cleveland. Effects of canopy tree species on belowground biogeochemistry in a lowland wet tropical forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58: 61-69.

Suddick, E., EA Davidson, P Whitney, AR Townsend. 2012. The role of nitrogen in climate change and the impacts of nitrogen–climate interactions in the United States. Biogeochemistry DOI: 10.1007/s10533-012-9795-z

Weintraub, S.R., W.R. Wieder, C.C. Cleveland & A.R. Townsend. 2012. Both absolute and relative soil resource availabilities drive exo-enzymatic shifts in a lowland tropical forest. Biogeochemistry DOI: 10.1007/s10533-012-9812-2

Davidson, E.A., M. B. David, J. N. Galloway, C. L. Goodale, R. Haeuber, J. A. Harrison, R. W. Howarth, D. B. Jaynes, R. R. Lowrance, B. T. Nolan, J. L. Peel, R. W. Pinder, E. Porter, C. S. Snyder, A. R. Townsend, and M. H. Ward. 2012. Excess nitrogen in the U.S. environment: trends, risks, and solutions. Issues in Ecology, Report Number 15, Ecological Society of America.

Houlton, B. Z., Boyer, B., Finzi, A., Galloway, J., Leach, A., Liptzin, D., Melillo, J., Rosenstock, T. S., Sobota, D., and Townsend, A. R. 2012. Intentional vs. unintentional nitrogen use in the United States: Trends, efficiency, and implications. Biogeochemistry doi:10.1007/s10533-012-9801-5

Leff, J.W., D.R. Nemergut, A.S. Grandy, S.P. O’Neill, K. Wickings, A.R. Townsend and C.C. Cleveland. 2012. The effects of soil bacterial community structure on decomposition in a tropical rain forest. Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s10021-011-9510-2.

Krizek, KJ, D Newport, JWC White, AR Townsend. 2012.  Higher Education’s Sustainability Imperative: How to Practically Respond? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1108/14676371211190281

Townsend, A.R., C.C. Cleveland, B.Z. Houlton, C.B. Alden and J.W.C. White. 2011. Multi-element regulation of the tropical forest carbon cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(1):9-17

Wieder, W.R., C.C. Cleveland and A.R. Townsend. 2011. Throughfall exclusion and leaf litter manipulation drive higher rates of soil N2O emissions from a lowland wet tropical forest. Global Change Biology, in press.

Cleveland, C.C. A.R. Townsend, P. Taylor, S. Alvarez-Clare, M.M.C. Bustamante, G. Chuyong, P. Grierson, K.E. Harms, B.Z. Houlton, A. Marklein, W. Parton, S. Porder, S.C. Reed, C.A. Sierra, W.L. Silver, E.V.J. Tanner & W.R. Wieder.  2011.  Relationships Among Net Primary Productivity, Nutrients and Climate in Tropical Rain Forest: A Pan-Tropical Analysis.  Ecology Letters, doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01658.x

Townsend, A.R. and S. Porder.  2011.  Boundary Issues.  Environmental Research Letters, 6 011001 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/011001.

Townsend, A.R., C.C. Cleveland, B.Z. Houlton, C.B. Alden and J.W.C. White. 2011. Multi-element regulation of the tropical forest carbon cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(1):9-17.

Reed, SC, CC Cleveland and AR Townsend. 2011.  Functional ecology of free-living nitrogen fixation: A contemporary perspective.  Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, in press.

Taylor, P. T. and A.R. Townsend.  2010.  Stoichiometric controls over carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to the sea.  Nature, 464:1178-1181.

Townsend, A.R. and R.W. Howarth.  2010. Fixing the Nitrogen Problem.  Scientific American, Feb 2010, pp 64-71.

Reed, S.C., A.R. Townsend, P.G. Taylor and C.C. Cleveland. 2010. Ecosystems (14): Phosphorus Cycling in Tropical Forests Growing on Highly Weathered Soils In: E Buenemann, A Oberson and E Frossard (Eds). Soil Biology: ‘Phosphorus In Action – Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling’. Springer.

Townsend, A.R., L.A. Martinelli, N.B. Grimm. 2010. Agriculture, development and nitrogen:  a tale of two worlds.  Ecological Applications, Volume 20, Issue 1 pp. 1-2.

D. R. Nemergut, E. K. Costello, M. Hamady, C. Lozupone, L. Jiang, S. K. Schmidt, N. Fierer, A. R. Townsend, C. C. Cleveland, L. Stanish, R. Knight (2010). Global patterns in the biogeography of bacterial taxa. Environmental Microbiology, 13(1):135-144.

Cleveland, C.C., W.Wieder, S.C. Reed and A. R. Townsend.  2010. Experimental dry-down in a wet tropical forest increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere.  Ecology, 91: 2313-2323.

Cleveland, C.C., B.Z. Houlton, C. Neill, S.C. Reed, A.R. Townsend, Y. Wang.  2010. Using indirect methods to constrain symbiotic nitrogen fixation rates: A case study from an Amazonian rain forest.  Biogeochemistry,  99: 1-13.

D. R. Nemergut, C. C. Cleveland, W. R. Wieder, C. L. Washenberger and A. R. Townsend. (2010). Plot-scale manipulations of organic matter inputs to soils correlate with shifts in microbial community composition in a lowland tropical rain forest. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42: 2153-2160.

S. C. Reed, A. R. Townsend, C. C. Cleveland, D. R. Nemergut (2010). Microbial community shifts influence patterns in tropical forest nitrogen fixation. Oecologia. 164: 521-531.

Johnson, P.T.J., A.R. Townsend, C.C. Cleveland, P.M. Gilbert, R.W. Howarth, V.J. McKenzie, E. Rejmankova, M.H. Ward.  2010. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife. Ecological Applications, Volume 20, Issue 1 pp. 16-29

Vitousek, P.M., R. Naylor, T. Crews, M. David, L. Drinkwater, E. Holland, J. Katzenberger, L. Martinelli, P. Matson, G. Nziguheba, D. Ojima, C. Palm, G.P. Robertson, P. Sanchez, A.R. Townsend, F.S. Zhang.  Nutrient imbalances along trajectories of agricultural development. 2009.  Science, 324:1519-1520.

Wieder, W., C.C. Cleveland and A.R. Townsend. 2009. Controls over leaf litter decomposition in wet tropical forests.  Ecology, 90(12): 3333-3341

Townsend, A.R. and C.P. Palm.  2009.  The Nitrogen Challenge.  Bioscience, 59(10): 822-823.

Townsend, A.R., G.P. Asner and C.C. Cleveland. 2008. The biogeochemical heterogeneity of tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23(8):424-431.

Galloway, JN; Townsend, AR; Erisman, JW; Bekunda, M; Cai, ZC; Freney, JR; Martinelli, LA; Seitzinger, SP; Sutton, MA. 2008. Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320 (5878): 889-892.

Townsend, A.R., L.A. Martinelli and R.W. Howarth.  2008. The Global Nitrogen Cycle, Biodiversity and Human Health. in, SCOPE 69: Biodiversity and Human Health, O. Sala and C. Parmesan, eds. Island Press.

Johnson, P and A.R. Townsend. 2008. Nutrient Enrichment in Aquatic Ecosystems and Emergence of Human and Animal Diseases.  Epidemiology 19(6).

Nemergut, D.N, A.R. Townsend et al. 2008. The effects of chronic nitrogen fertilization on alpine tundra soil microbial communities: implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling. Environmental Microbiology, 10(11): 3093-3105.

Reed, S.C., C.C. Cleveland and A.R. Townsend. 2008. Tree species control rates of free-living nitrogen fixation in a lowland tropical forest. Ecology, 89(10): 2924-2934

Bern, C.R. and A.R. Townsend. 2008. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in Costa Rican soils. JGR-Biogeosciences, 113(G3): art # G03001.

Wieder, WR; Cleveland, CC; Townsend, AR. 2008. Tropical tree species composition affects the oxidation of dissolved organic matter from litter. Biogeochemistry 88 (2): 127-138.

Bern, C.R., S. Porder and A.R. Townsend. 2007. Erosion and landscape development decouple strontium and sulfur in the transition to dominance by atmospheric inputs. Geoderma, 142:274-284.

McKenzie, V. and A.R. Townsend. Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to a Changing Global Nitrogen Cycle. 2007. EcoHealth, 4(4):384-396.

Townsend, A.R., C.C. Cleveland, G.P.Asner and M.M.C. Bustamante. 2007. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical forests.  Ecology, 88(1): 107-118.

Reed, S.C., C.C. Cleveland and A.R. Townsend.  2007. Climate and nutrient regulation of free-living N-fixation in a lowland tropical forest.  Biotropica, 39(5):585-592.

Reed, S.C., T.R. Seastedt, C.M. Mann, K.N. Suding and A.R. Townsend. 2007. Phosphorus Fertilization Stimulates Nitrogen Fixation and Increases Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in a Restored Prairie.  Applied Soil Ecology, 36:238-242.

Kennish, M. and A.R. Townsend. 2007.  Nutrient Enrichment and Estuarine Eutrophication. Ecological Applications, 17(5):1-2.

Galloway, J.N., A.R. Townsend, J.W. Erisman, S. Seitzinger, L.A. Martinelli, M. Bekunda, M. Sutton,  J. Freney and Z. Cai.  2007. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle:  threats, benefits and opportunities.  UNESCO-SCOPE Policy Brief, April 2007.

Cleveland, C.C., D.R. Nemergut, A.R. Townsend and S. Schmidt. 2007. Increases in soil respiration following labile carbon additions linked to rapid shifts in soil microbial community composition. Biogeochemistry, 82 (3): 229-240.

Townsend, A.R. and E.A. Davidson.  2006.  Denitrification across landscapes and waterscapes.  Ecological Applications 16 (6): 2055-2056

Martinelli, L. A., R. W. Howarth, E. Cuevas, S. Filoso, A. T. Austin, L. Donoso, V. Huszar, D. Keeney, L. L. Lara, C. Llerena, G. McIssac, E. Medina, J. Ortiz-Zayas, D. Scavia, D. W. Schindler, D. Soto, and A. Townsend. 2006. Sources of reactive nitrogen affecting ecosystems in Latin America and the Caribbean: current trends and future perspectives. Biogeochemistry 79:3-24.

Cleveland, C. C. and A. R. Townsend. 2006. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions cause substantial losses of soil carbon from a lowland tropical rain forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(27):10,316-10,321.

Cleveland, C.C., S.C. Reed and A.R. Townsend.  2006. Nutrient regulation of organic matter decomposition in a tropical rain forest. Ecology 87: 492-503.

Cleveland, C. C., D. M. McKnight and A. R. Townsend. 2006. Links between the carbon and hydrologic cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. In: D. M. McKnight, (Ed). The Encyclopedia of Hydrological Science. John Wiley & Sons.

Litaor, M.I., T.R. Seastedt, M.D. Walker, M. Carbone, and A. R. Townsend. 2005. The biogeochemistry of phosphorus in alpine soils. Geoderma, 124 (1-2): 49-61

Bern, C.B., A.R. Townsend and G.L. Farmer. 2005. Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils. Ecology, 86(3):626-632.

Palmer, M.A., E. Bernhardt, E. Chornesky, S.L. Collins, A. Dobson, C. Duke, B. Gold, R. Jacobson, S. Kingsland, R. Kranz, M. Mappin, M. L. Martinez, F. Micheli, J.L. Morse, M. Pace, M. Pascual, S. Palumbi, J. Reichman, W.H. Schlesinger, A. Townsend, and M. G. Turner. 2005. Ecological Science and Sustainability for the 21st Century. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(3):4-11.

Mahowald, NM, P Artaxo, A. Baker, TD Jickells, GS Okin, JT Randerson, AR Townsend. 2005. Impacts of biomass burning emissions and land use on Amazonian atmospheric phosphorus cycling and deposition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19 (4): Art. No. GB4030

Palmer, M.A., E. Bernhardt, E. Chornesky, S.L. Collins, A. Dobson, C. Duke, B. Gold, R. Jacobson, S. Kingsland, R. Kranz, M. Mappin, M. L. Martinez, F. Micheli, J.L. Morse, M. Pace, M. Pascual, S. Palumbi, J, Reichman, W.H. Schlesinger, A. Townsend, and M. G. Turner. (alphabetical after first). 2004. Ecology for a Crowded Planet. Science 304:1251-1253.

Cleveland, C. C., A. R. Townsend, R. E. Ley, S. K. Schmidt and B. C. Constance. 2004. Soil Microbial Dynamics in Costa Rica: Seasonal and Biogeochemical Constraints. Biotropica, 36 (2): 184-195

Seastedt, T.R., W.D. Bowman, D. McKnight, A.R. Townsend and M. Williams. 2004. The Landscape Continuum: A Conceptual Model for High Elevation Ecosystems. BioScience, 54 (2): 111-121

Cleveland, C. C., J. C. Neff, A. R. Townsend and E. Hood. 2004. Composition, dynamics and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results of a decomposition experiment. Ecosystems, 7 (3): 275-285

Asner, G.P., A. R. Townsend, M. M.C. Bustamante, G. B. Nardoto, and L. P. Olander. 2004. Pasture Degradation in the Central Amazon: Linking Changes in Carbon and Nutrient Cycling with Remote Sensing. Global Change Biology, 10 (5): 844-862

Galloway, J. N., G. Asner, E. W. Boyer, D. G. Capone, C. Cleveland, F. J. Dentener, P. Greene, E. Holland, R. W. Howarth, D. M. Karl, A. F. Michaels, S. P. Seitzinger, A. R. Townsend, C. Vorosmarty. 2004. Global and Regional Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present and Future. Biogeochemistry, 70 (2): 153-226

Townsend, A.R., R.W. Howarth, F.A. Bazzaz, M.S. Booth, C.C. Cleveland, S.K. Collinge, A.P. Dobson, P.R. Epstein, E.A. Holland, D.R. Keeney, M.A. Mallin, C.A. Rogers, P. Wayne and A.H. Wolfe. 2003. Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5): 240–246.

Asner, G.P., M.C. Bustamante and A.R. Townsend. 2003. Scale dependence of biophysical structure in deforested areas bordering the Tapajós National Forest, central Amazon. Remote Sensing Environment. 87 (4): 507-520

Neff, J.C.¨, A.R. Townsend¨, G. Gleixner, S.J. Lehman, J. Turnbull and W.D. Bowman. 2002. Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of organic carbon. Nature, 419: 915-917 (¨ Equal 1st Authors).

Townsend, A.R., G.P. Asner, P.P. Tans and J.W. C. White. 2002.  Tropical land use effects on atmospheric 13C imply a sizable terrestrial carbon sink in equatorial latitudes.  Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 29, NO. 10, 10.1029.

Townsend, A.R., G.P. Asner, C.C. Cleveland, M.E. Lefer and M. M. C. Bustamante. 2002. Unexpected changes in soil phosphorus dynamics following tropical deforestation to cattle pasture. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 107, NO. D20, 8067-8076.

Cleveland, C.C., A.R. Townsend and S. Schmidt. 2002.  Phosphorus limitation of microbial processes in moist tropical forests.  Ecosystems 5:680-691.

Asner, G.P., A.R. Townsend, J.C. Neff and C.C. Cleveland. 2001.  Modeling tropical and semi-arid ecosystem responses to increased N deposition. Biogeochemistry, 54:1-39.

Holland, E.A., J.C. Neff, A.R. Townsend and B. McKeown. 2000. Uncertainties in the temperature sensitivity of decomposition in tropical and subtropical ecosystems:  experimental data and extrapolation with models.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14(4):1137-1151.

Asner, G.P, A.R. Townsend and B.H. Braswell. 2000.  Satellite observation of El Niño effects on Amazon forest productivity.  Geophysical Research Letters, 27(7):981-984.

Howarth, R.W., N. Jaworski, D. Swaney, A.R. Townsend, G. Billen. 2000. Some approaches for assessing human influence on fluxes of nitrogen and organic carbon to estuaries.  In, Estuarine Synthesis: the Next Decade (J.E. Hobbie, ed.).

Martinelli, L., M. Piccolo, A.R. Townsend, P.M. Vitousek, E. Cuevas, W. McDowell, G.P. Robertson, O.C. Santos and K. Treseder.  1999.  Nitrogen stable isotopic composition:  tropical vs. temperate forests. Biogeochemistry 46(1-3):45-65.

Matson, P.A., W.H. McDowell, A.R. Townsend and P.M. Vitousek. 1999. The globalization of N  deposition:  ecosystem consequences. Biogeochemistry 46(1-3):67-83.

Cleveland, C.C., A.R. Townsend, D.S. Schimel, H.Fisher, R.W. Howarth, L.O. Hedin, S.S. Perakis, E.F. Latty, J.C. Von Fischer, A. Elseroad and M.F. Wasson. 1999. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13(2):623-645.

Asner, G.P. A.R. Townsend and M.C. Bustamante. 1999.  Spectrometry of pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Central Amazon.  Geophysical Research Letters 26(17):2769-2772.

Townsend, A.R. (ed.) 1999.  New Perspectives on Nitrogen Cycling in the Temperate and Tropical Americas. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.

Townsend, A.R., P.M. Vitousek, D. DesMarais and A. Tharpe. 1997. The effects of temperature and soil carbon pool structure on CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes from five Hawaiian soils. Biogeochemistry 38:1-17.

Asner, G.P., T.R. Seastedt, and A.R. Townsend. 1997. The decoupling of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. BioScience 47:226-234.

Holland, E.A., B.H. Braswell, J.-F. Lamarque, A.R. Townsend, J. Sulzman, J.-F. Muller, F. Dentener, G. Brasseur, H. Levy II, J.E. Penner and G-J. Roelofs. 1997.  Variations in the predicted spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their impact on carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems.  J. Geophysical Research 102(D13):15,849-15,866.

Townsend, A.R., B.H. Braswell, E.A. Holland and J.E. Penner. 1996. Spatial and temporal patterns in terrestrial carbon storage from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Ecological Applications 6(3):806-814.

Howarth, R.W., G.Billen, D. Swaney, A.R. Townsend, N. Jaworkski, K. Lajtha, J.A. Downing, R. Elmgren, N. Caraco, T. Jordan, F. Berendse, J. Freney, V. Kudeyarov, P. Murdoch and Z. Zhao-Liang. 1996. Riverine inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to the North Atlantic Ocean: fluxes and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35(l):75-116.

Townsend, A.R., P.M. Vitousek and S.E. Trumbore. 1995. Soil carbon dynamics along gradients in temperature and land-use on the island of Hawaii. Ecology 76:721-733.

Townsend, A.R. and E.B. Rastetter. 1995. Nutrient controls over forest carbon storage. In: Apps, M.J. and D. Price (eds.), Forests, Forest Management, and the Global Carbon Cycle. Springer-Verlag, Amsterdam.

Holland, E.A., A.R. Townsend and P.M. Vitousek. 1995. Variability in temperature regulation of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from five Hawaiian soils: implications for a changing climate. Global Change Biology 2:87-99.

Townsend, A.R. and M.T. Sykes.  1995.  Natural and anthropogenically-induced variations in terrestrial carbon balance.  in, Forests, Forest Management, and the Global Carbon Cycle. (MJ Apps and D Price eds.), Springer Verlag, Amsterdam.

Schimel, D.S., B.H. Braswell, E.A. Holland, R. McKeown, D.S. Ojima, T.H. Painter and A.R. Townsend. 1994. Climatic, edaphic and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 8(3):279-293.

Townsend, A.R., P.M. Vitousek and E.A. Holland. 1992. Tropical soils could dominate the short-term carbon cycle feedbacks to increased global temperatures. Climatic Change 22(4):293-303.

Townsend, A.R., S. Frolking, and E.A. Holland.  1991.  Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from high-latitude ecosystems: a simulation model.  in, Modeling the Earth System  (ed. D. Ojima) UCAR, Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies.